|An Introduction to Art
Expressionism is a form of art
in which the artist expresses himself purely through
the use of form and colour.
It blossomed in America after the Second World War
and held sway until the dawn of Pop
Art in the1960's. It is form where no objects
typically applies paint
rapidly, and with force to their huge canvases
in an effort to show feelings and emotions, painting
gesturally, sometimes applying paint
with large brushes,
sometimes dripping or even throwing it onto canvas.
Their work is characterized by what appears to be
accident and chance, but which is actually highly
planned. It was generally believed that the spontaneity
of the artists'
approach to their work would draw from and release
the creativity of their unconscious minds.
involving a mix of other modern decorative art
styles, largely of the 1920s and 1930s.
Deco is an elegant style
of decorative art
and especially architecture, similar in some regards
to the earlier Art Nouveau
was popularly considered to be an elegant style
of cool sophistication in architecture and applied
arts which range
from luxurious objects made from exotic material to
mass produced, streamlined items available to a growing
Nouveau french for "The New Art"
is an elegant decorative art
style characterized by intricately detailed patterns
of curving lines. It was developed during the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is particularly
characterised by the depiction of leaves and flowers
in undulating lines, often flowing vines. Art
Nouveau became popular across Europe and
in the United States.
roots of Art Nouveau
go back to Romanticism, Symbolism, the English Arts
and Crafts Movement and William Morris (English, 1834-1896).
Art Nouveau is also known as Jugenstil
and Yellow Book Style, epitomizing what is sometimes
called fin de siècle style.
group of early twentieth-century American artists
who often painted
pictures to capture
the feel of turn-of-the-century New York City, through
realistic and unglamorized portraits of everyday life.
group was active between 1908 to 1918.
association of French landscape painters
working in the region of the French town of Barbizon
who attempted to achieve a truer representation of
the countryside, and are considered to be part of
the French Realist
movement. Theodore Rousseau was a leader; Corot and
Millet were also associated with the group. The
Barbizon School existed in France in the mid-19th
movement in European painting
in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries,
characterized by violent movement, strong emotion,
and dramatic lighting and coloring.
was limited mainly to Catholic countries. It is a
style in which
sought emotion, movement, and variety in their works.
movement was encouraged by the Catholic Church, the
most important patron of the arts
at that time, as a return to tradition and spirituality
style of the
and its provinces, which existed during the time 5th
Century A.D. to 1453 when the Christian empire whose
capital was Constantinople, now known as Istanbul,
was conquered by the Turks in 1450. However, its influence
continued in Russia and elsewhere where the Orthodox
church held sway.
art of the Eastern
Roman Empire, refers more to a style
associated with Byzantium
than to its area. Byzantine
paintings and mosaics are characterized
by a rich use of color and figures which seem flat
and stiff. The figures also tend to appear to be floating,
and to have large eyes. Backgrounds tend to be solidly
golden or toned.
was centered around the Orthodox church, in the painting
of icons and the decoration of churches with frescoes
and mosaics. Early Byzantine
art is often called "Early Christian
was a British style
of historical painting
inspired by the art
and architecture of Classical
Greece and Rome during the mid to late 19th Century.
In a general sense, it refers to art
based on accepted standards of beauty.
the 19th century, an increasing number of Europeans
made the "Grand Tour" to Mediterranean lands.
There was even a great popular interest in the region's
ancient ruins and exotic cultures, and this interest
fuelled the rise of Classicism.
of the most influential art
movements during the period 1907 to 1914, Cubism
was developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque,
who were greatly inspired by African sculpture, by
Cézanne and Georges Seurat, and by the Fauvists.
key concept of Cubism
is that the essence of objects can only be captured
by showing it from multiple points of view simultaneously.
is an early twentieth century art
movement born as a consequence of the collapse during
World War I of social and moral values which developed
to that time. It was developed in Europe. Dada
in absurdity, and emphasised the role of the unpredictable
in artistic creation.
typically produced art objects in unconventional forms
produced by unconventional methods. Several artists
employed the chance results of accident as a means
of production, for instance.
dominant in Germany from 1905-1925, refers to art
in which the intention is not to reproduce a subject
accurately, but instead to portray it in such a way
as to express the inner state of the artist.
The emphasis was on distortion to communicate emotion.
early twentieth century art movement and style of painting in France during the
period 1898-1908. The name Fauves, French for "Wild
Beasts," was given to artists
adhering to this style
because it was felt that they used intense colors
in a violent, uncontrolled way. Fauvism
was a short-lived movement, but had a substantial
influence on some of the Expressionists.The
leader of the Fauves was Henri Matisse.
made by people who had little or no formal schooling
in art. This art
was due to regional traditions and involved crafts.
usually make works of art
with traditional techniques and content, in styles
handed down through many generations, and often of
a particular region. Paintings,
sculptures, ceramics, metalwork, costume, tools, and
other everyday objects all may be folk art.
was an Italian modernist movement during the time
period 1909 to 1919. Futurism
originated among a group of Italian artists
as a means of celebrating the machine age, glorifying
war and favoring the growth of fascism.
painting and sculpture
were especially concerned with expressing movement
and the dynamics of natural and man-made forms.
core themes of Futurist
thought and art
were machines and motion
Art came during the time frame of the 5th
century to 16th century A.D. Gothic sculpture emerged
in 1200 and Gothic painting
later in the thirteenth century.
art type began
in France. Typically religious in nature, it is especially
known for the distinctive arched design of its churches,
its stained glass, and its illuminated manuscripts.
characterized by a linear, graceful, elegant style
more naturalistic than that which had existed previously
was a Gothic Revival in the 18th and 19th centuries.
is that art movement
which flourished in France during the time 1860's
to 1880's. Artists
sought to catch glimpses of their subjects showing
the effects of sunlight on things at different times
movement's name came from Monet's early work, Impression:
Sunrise. The Impressionist
style is still widely practiced today.
is the European art
movement and style
that developed between during the time period, 1520
to 1600. It arose in reaction to the calm balance
of the High Renaissance
in favor of emotion and distortion. These works of
the tension in Europe at this time. It featured elongated,
contorted poses, crowded canvases, and harsh lighting
movement in American painting
and sculpture that originated in the late 1950s. It
emphasized pure, reduced forms and strict, systematic
the Hebrew word for "prophet." This art
period was developed by a group of French painters
active in the 1890s who stressed flat areas of color
and pattern. The group became very influential within
the field of graphic art.
It existed between 1888 to 1890.
French art style
developed during the late eighteenth to early nineteenth
centuries. It originated as a result of the Baroque.
It sought to revive the ideals of ancient Greek and
Roman art. Neoclassic
classical forms to express their ideas about courage,
sacrifice, and love of country.
Art, a short form for Optical
Art began in the mid-1950's based on the
effects of optical patterns. Op
Art, a form of abstract
art, uses reduced geometrical forms - sometimes
in black and white contrasts and sometimes with very
brilliant colors. During the time 1960 to 1970, Op
Art even made its way into fashion design.
However, it was greeted with a certain degree of scepticism
by the critics.
Art, an abbreviation for Popular
Art began in Britain and the United States
in the 1950s. The Pop Art
movement wanted to bring art
back into the daily life of people. It was a reaction
against abstract painting,
which pop artists
considered as too sophisticated and elite.
Art is a direct descendant of Dadaism
in the way it mocks the established art
world by appropriating images from the street, the
supermarket, the mass media, and presents it as art
is a French art
movement that represented both an extension of Impressionism
and a rejection of that style's
inherent limitations. The term was coined by British
art critic Roger
Fry to refer to a group of nineteenth-century painters,
including Cezanne, Van Gogh, and Gauguin, who were
dissatisfied with the limitations of expressionism.
of these painters
except van Gogh were French, and most of them began
However, each of them abandoned the style
to form his own highly personal art.
was based on the recording of nature in terms of the
effects of colour and light. The Post-Impressionists
rejected this limited aim in favour of more ambitious
expression, admitting their debt, however, to the
pure, brilliant colours of Impressionism,
its freedom from traditional subject matter, and its
technique of defining form with short brushstrokes
of broken colour.
movement was originally founded by Holman Hunt and
John Everett Millaisa in 1848. The name was decided
upon as the group aimed to rediscover the painting
styles of artists
working earlier than the time of Raphael. They rejected
industrialized England and focused on painting
from nature, producing detailed, colorful works. Pre-Raphaelitism
was highly successful during the Victorian era and
continued into the early 20th century.
also known as the Realist
school, refers to objective representation. This nineteenth
century art movement,
developed in France, rejected the formulas of Neoclassicism
and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint
familiar scenes and everyday subjects.
Renaissance meaning "rebirth" in French is that art
movement which began in Italy in the 14th. It describes
the revival of interest in the artistic
achievements of the Classical world. Initially in
a literary revival Renaissance
was determined to move away from the religion-dominated
Middle Ages and to turn its attention to the plight
of the individual man in society.
was a time when individual expression and worldly
experience became two of the main themes of Renaissance
art. The movement
owed a lot to the increasing sophistication of society,
characterised by political stability, economic growth
and cosmopolitanism. Education blossomed at this time,
with libraries and academies allowing more thorough
research to be conducted into the culture of the antique
da Vinci was the archetypal Renaissance
man representing the humanistic values of the period
in his art, science
and writing. Michelangelo and Raphael were also vital
figures in this movement, producing works regarded
for centuries as embodying the classical notion of
the eighteenth-century, a new wealthy and influential
middle-class began to rise. This Paris high society
became the purveyors of style
and this style,
was primarily used in interior decoration, which came
to be called Rococo.
The term Rococo was derived from the French word "rocaille",
which means pebbles and refers to the stones and shells
use to decorate the interiors of caves. Therefore,
shell forms became the principal motif in Rococo.
The society women competed for the best and most elaborate
decorations for their houses. Hence the Rococo
style was highly dominated by the feminine taste and
European art style
originated in reaction to the grandeur and massiveness
of the baroque. It employed refined, elegant, highly
Rococo is sometimes
considered a final phase of the Baroque
a European art style
developed in France in the late eleventh century,
derived its name from inspirations of Roman architecture.
Many cathedrals and churches consisted of a blending
of Gothic/Romanesque elements. Its sculpture is ornamental,
European art movement
developed during the late eighteenth to mid nineteenth
century. The movement embraced the art
of the Gothic period. Eventually responsible for the
great Neo-Gothic building period of the later years
of the century. The subject matter was invested with
drama and usually painted
energetically in brilliant colors. The emphasis of
Romanticism is on emotional expression. It is a deeply-felt
style which is
individualistic, beautiful, exotic, and emotionally
is an art movement
which began in France during the 1920s and 1930s.
is a modern art
movement that emphasizes the unconscious, the importance
of dreams, the psychological aspect in arts.
It sought to explore the unconscious, often using
images from dreams.
was founded in Paris in 1924 by André Breton.
also known as Synthetism
flourished from around 1885 and continued until 1910.
movement flourished in France featuring decorative,
styles of the
shared many of the same themes particularly a fascination
with the mystical and the visionary. The erotic, the
perverse, death and debauchery were also regular interests
for the Symbolists.